Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty – Journal of ISAKOS June 2023 – Capitolo del Journal of Isakos di Giugno 2023.
Reverse shoulder arthroplasty: State-of-the-art
The reverse shoulder arthroplasty conceived by Paul Grammont in 1985 has gradually gained popularity as a treatment for multiple shoulder diseases. Unlike previous reverse shoulder prosthesis characterized by unsatisfactory results and a high glenoid implant failure rate, the Grammont design has immediately shown good clinical outcomes. This semi constrained prosthesis solved the issues of the very first designs by medializing and distalizing the center of rotation with an increased stability of the replacement of the component.
The indication was initially limited to cuff tear arthropathy (CTA). It has then been expanded to irreparable massive cuff tears and displaced humeral head fractures. The most frequent problems of this design are a limited postoperative external rotation and scapular notching.
Different modifications to the original Grammont design have been proposed with the aim of decreasing the risk of failure and complications and improving the
Both the position and version/inclination of the glenosphere and the humeral configuration (e.g. neck shaft angle) influence the RSA outcomes.
A lateralized glenoid (whether with bone or metal) and a 135 Inlay system configuration leads to a moment arm which is the closest to the native shoulder. Clinical research will focus on implant designs reducing bone adaptations and revision rate, strategies to prevent more effectively infections. Furthermore, there is
still room for improvement in terms of better postoperative internal and external rotations and clinical outcomes after RSA implanted for humeral fracture and revision shoulder arthroplasty.
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